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  • ስለ አራቱ የድንግልና ዓይነቶች ምን ያህል ያውቃሉ?

    ከሊሊ ሞገስ

    በዚህ ጉዳይ ላይ ሴቶችን ለይተን ተጠያቂ ማድረጋችን የድርጊት ተቀባይ በመሆናቸውና ውጤት የአስተናጋጅነት እጣ ፈንታው በእነሱ በኩል እንዲያመዝን ተፈጥሮ ያደላችበት ፍርጃ ስላለ ነው፡፡ ምክንያቱም በመጀመሪያው የግንኙነት ወቅት የአካል መጉደል የሚከናወነው በእነሱ አካል ላይ ስለሆነ ማለት ነው፡፡ በዚህ የተነሳ ለድርጊቱ ሴቶች ከወንዶች የተሻለ ትውስታና የጠለቀ ስሜት ስለሚኖራቸውም ነው፡፡ ድንግልና እና ክብረንፅህና ድንግልና፡- የወንዶችም ሆነ የሴቶችን የአካል መቆጠብ ለመግለፅ የምንጠቀምበት ቃል ሲሆን ይሄም የሚያገለግለው ከግብረ ስጋ ግንኙነት መቆጠብን ይመሰክራል፡፡ ይህ የመቆጠብና የመጠበቅ ሒደትም ለሰውነቴ ክብር መስጠት ነውና የሰውነትን ንፅህና ለመግለፅ ስንጠቀምበት ክብረ ንፅህና (የንፅህና ክብር) በማለት ይብራራል፡፡ ድንግልና በምን ይገለፃል? በእርግጥ ለሁለቱም ፆታ መታቀብን ተከትሎ ቢያገለግልም በወንዶች ላይ መታቀቡና መጽናቱን ተከትሎ የሚታይ አካላዊ ለውጥ የለም፡፡ በሴቶች በኩል ግን የተራክቦ አካላት ከሆኑት መሀል በብልት አካባቢ ይህን የድንግልና መገለጫ ምልክት ይሆን ዘንድ ተፈጥሮ አስቀምጦት ይገኛል፡፡ በምን መልኩ? ድንግልና በሴቶች ብልት በራፍ ላይ የተቀመጠ አነስተኛ መጠን ያለው በደም ስሮች የተሞላ ስስና ሴንሴቲቭ /ስሱ/ የሆነ የሰውነት ክፍል ነው፡፡ ይህ ስስ የሰውነት አካል ለሽንትና ለወር አበባ መፍሰሻ በሚያገለግል መልኩ በትንሿ ጣት ልክ ክፍተት ያለው ክብ ቀዳዳ ነው፡፡ የድንግልና አይነት የድንግልና አይነት በተለያዩ ሴቶች ላይ በአራት (4) ሁኔታ ይገኛል፡፡ 1ኛ/ ሙሉ የብልት አካልን በራፍ እንደ መጋረጃ የዘጋና ለወር አበባና ለሽንት ማለፊያ በትንሿ ጣት ልክ ቀዳዳ በክብነት ያለው ሆኖ ይገኛል፡፡ 2ኛ/ ብዙ ጊዜ ባይሆንም በአንዳንድ ሴቶች ላይ እንደሚታየው የወንፊት መልክ በያዘ የተበሳሳ በርካታ ቀዳዳዎች ሙሉ ለሙሉ የብልቱ በራፍ የተጋረደ ሆኖ የሚገኝበት ሁኔታ ነው፡፡ 3ኛ/ በተፈጥሮ ምንም አይነት የሰውነት ክፍል በብልቱ በራፍ ላይ ሳይጋረድ ወይም የብልቱ በራፍ ከሆነው ቀዳዳ በላይ በሆነ አካል ግርዶሽ ተሸፍኖ የሚገኝበት አጋጣሚም አለ፡፡ እነዚህ በተፈጥሮ የሚሆኑ ሲሆኑ በግንኙነት ጊዜ በሚፈጠረው ፍትጊያና በወንዱ አካል (ብልት) የሚወገዱ ናቸው፡፡ ይሁን እንጂ በ4ኛ/ ደረጃ የሚጠቀሰው ድንግልናው በተፈጥሮ በጠነከረ ቆዳና በቀላሉ በወንዱ አካል (ብልት) ሊወገድ የማይችል አይነት ነው፡፡ ይህ አይነቱ ድንግልና ብዙ ጊዜ በህክምና ተቋም በመሄድ በቀዶ ህክምና ከሴቷ ብልት በራፍ የሚወገድ ለተራክቦ አካሏ የሚስተካከልበት ሁኔታ ነው፡፡ ከሞላ ጎደል የሴት ልጆች ድንግልና በዚሁ መልኩ በተፈጥሮ የሚሰጣቸው ልዩ ፀጋ ነው፡፡ ይህ ፀጋ ደግሞ አንዴ በመወለድ የሚገኝ የአንድ ጊዜ ዕድል ነውና በህይወታቸው ውስጥ ሴቶች የማይረሱት አሻራን ያነጥቡ ዘንድ ሰፊ ዕድል ያረገዘ ነው፡፡ ይህ አካልና የክብር መግለጫ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ በሚደረግ የግብረስጋ ግንኙነት ሊጠፋ ይችላል፡፡ እንዲሁም በአላስፈላጊ እንቅስቃሴም፣ በፈረስና ሳይክል ግልቢያ፣ ከባድ ዕቃ በማንሳትና በጀርባ በመሸከም በሂደት በመስፋትም ሆነ በመተርተር ሊጠፋ ይችላል፡፡ ግብረስጋ ግንኙነት ምንድነው? የግብረስጋ ግንኙነት ማለት ወንድና ሴት የሆኑ ፆታዎች በተራክቦ አካላት የሚፈፅሙት የአካል መገናኘት ግብረ ስጋ ግንኙነት ሲባል ሂደቱ ግን የተለያዩ አካላዊና ስነ ልቦናዊ ስሜቶችን ይዞ ይገኛል፡፡ ይህ ቢሆንም አላማው ግን አንድም ስሜት (ስጋዊ ፍላጎትን) ለማርካትና ምላሽ ለመስጠት ሲሆን ሁለተኛ ደግሞ የግብረ ስጋ ግንኙነት ትርጉም ዘር ለመተካት የሚያደርግ ሂደት በመሆን ይገለፃል፡፡ ከዚህ አኳያ ሴቶች ወንዶች አካላዊ በሆነ ንክኪ ስሜታቸውን ምላሽ ለመስጠትም ሆነ ዘር ለመተካት በሚደረግ ግንኙነት ይህን አካል ያጡታል፡፡ ይህ ደግሞ ፈቅደውና ተገደው የሚሆንበት አጋጣሚ እጅጉን ሰፊ ነው፡፡ ፈቅደውም ሆነ ተገደው ክብረ ንፅህናቸውን በማጣትም ሆነ በተለያየ መልኩ ካጡት በኋላ ቢሆንም ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ በሚባለው የግብረ ስጋ ግንኙነት ሴቶች ምን ስሜት ይሰማቸዋል? የሚለው አብይ ጉዳያችን ነው፡፡ ለምን? የትውልድ መሸጋገሪያዎች ሴቶች እናቶች ናቸው፡፡ ይህ ሁኔታ ደግሞ ሴቶች የህብረተሰቡ ግማሽ አካል ናቸው፡፡ እውነቱ ይሄ ከሆነ የሴቶች ጤናማነት ያለው አስተሳሰብ ጤናማ ትውልድን በመቅረጽ ጥሩ ዜጋን ለመተካት ይረዳልና ያለፈውን ለማረም፣ ለሚመጣው ትውልድም ከሚፈጥረው ስሜት አኳያ ተሞክሮን በማኖር መማማሪያ ለማትረፍ ከሚል በመነሳት ነው ይህን ሀሳብ የያዘ ደብዳቤ በየቦታው ለሴት እህቶቻችን በመስጠት የሰጡንን የስሜት ነፀብራቅ ለማቅረብ የወሰነው፡፡ ፍቅር እና ሴክስ ምንድናቸው? ፍቅርና ሴክስ የአንድ ሳንቲም ሁለት ገጽታዎች ያህል ግድ ናቸው የሚባልበት በአራት ነጥብ የተዘጋ ገለፃ የለም፡፡ ሁለትም አንድም ናቸው፡፡ ሁለትነታቸው በአተረጓጎም የሚለያዩና የተራራቁ ሲሆኑ፣ አንድነታቸው ግን ከመፈቃቀድ በኋላ አንዳቸው ለአንዳቸው መደራጀትና መጠናከር ጠንካራ አስተዋፅኦ መስጠታቸው ነው፡፡ ፍቅር ኖሮ ሴክስ ሲታከልበት ይበልጥ መግባባት ይቻላል፡፡ ፍቅር ባይኖርም በሴክስ መግባባት ሲቻል ያ መግባባት አንዱ የፍቅር ግብአት በመሆን ፍቅርን ለመፍጠር ይቻላል፡፡ በዋናነት ግን አሳማኝ በሆኑ ምክንያቶች ሲፈተሽ ፍቅር ላቅ ብሎ ይገኛል፡፡ ፍቅር መስዋዕትነት አንዱ ባህሪው ነውና በሴክስ ብቃት ባይደገፍም እንኳ ብቻውን ሊፀና ይችላል፡፡ ይህ ሁኔታ በአንፃሩ ፍቅር ሳይኖርም አካላዊ ምላሽ በመስጠት መንፈሳዊ እርካታ ባይገኝበትም ዘር ለመተካት በሚል በስጋዊ ምላሽ… እየተተረጎመ ሲኖር ይታያል፡፡ እስቲ የአንዷን አስተያየት እናንብብ፡፡ በመጀመሪያው ሴክሴ ፈሪ ሆኜ ቀርቻለሁ! ይህን ያለችን ሴት የ38 ዓመት ስትሆን 3 ልጆች አሏት፡፡ በተሟላ ትዳር ውስጥ ናት፡፡ የምትወደው ባልም አላት፡፡ እንዲህ ነበር ስሜቷን ያሰፈረችው፡፡ ‹‹…የ18 ዓመት ልጅ እያለሁ… በሰፈራችን ውስጥ ያለ ሸበላ ወጣት ጋር ፍቅር ጀመርን፡፡ ሁለታችንም ተማሪዎች ስለነበርን ከአለማችን በፊትና

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  • On the Question of Nationalities in Ethiopia

    On the Question of Nationalities in Ethiopia

    By Walleligne Mekonnen
    Arts IV, HSIU – Nov. 17, 1969

    The main purpose of this article is to provoke discussions on the “sacred”, yet very important issue of this country-the Question of Nationalities. The article as it was prepared for a special occasion (where detailed analysis was due time and other inconveniences impossible) suffers from generalizations and inadequate analysis. But I still feel it is not mediocre for a beginning. I expect my readers to avoid the temptation of snatching phrases out of their context and capitalizing on them. Instead every point raised here should be examined in the light of the whole analysis.

    We have reached a new stage in the development of the student movement, a level where Socialism as a student ideology has been taken for granted, and reaction with all its window dressing is on the defensive. The contradictory forces are no more revolution versus reform, but correct scientific Socialism versus perversion and fadism.

    The Socialist forces in the student movement till now have found it very risky and inconvenient to bring into the open certain fundamental questions because of their fear of being misunderstood. One of the delicate issues which has not yet been resolved up to now is the Question of Nationalities-some people call it ridiculously tribalism-but I prefer to call it nationalism. Panel discussions, articles in STRUGGLE and occasional speakers, clandestine leaflets and even tete-a-tete groups have not really delved into it seriously. Of course there was indeed the fear that it may alienate certain segments of the student population and as well the fear that the government may take advantage of an honest discussion to discredit the revolutionary student movement.

    Starting from last year, a small minority began to discuss this delicate issue for the most part in secluded places. Discussions, even private, leak out and because they were not brought into the open they normally led to backbiting, misunderstanding and grossly exaggerated rumours. I think students are mature enough to face reality even if they are very sensitive. And the only solution to this degeneration, as witnessed from some perverted leaflets running amock [amok] these two weeks, is open discussion.

    What are the Ethiopian peoples composed of? I stress on the word peoples because sociologically speaking, at this stage, Ethiopia is not really one nation. It is made up of a dozen nationalities with their own languages, ways of dressing, history, social organization and territorial entity. And what else is a nation? It is not made of a people with a particular tongue, particular ways of dressing, particular history, particular social and economic organization? Then, may I conclude that, in Ethiopia, there is the Oromo Nation, the Tigrai Nation, the Amhara Nation, the Gurage Nation, the Sidama Nation, the Wellamo [Wolayta] Nation, the Adere [Harari] Nation, and however much you may not like it, the Somali Nation.

    This is the true picture of Ethiopia. There is, of course, the fake Ethiopian Nationalism advanced by the ruling class, and unwillingly accepted and even propagated by innocent fellow travelers.

    What is this fake Nationalism? Is it not simply Amhara and to a certain extent Amhara-Tigre supremacy? Ask anybody what Ethiopian culture is? Ask anybody what Ethiopian language is? Ask anybody what Ethiopian music is? Ask anybody what the “national dress” is? It is either Amhara or Amhara-Tigre!!

    To be a “genuine Ethiopian” one has to speak Amharic, to listen to Amharic music, to accept the Amhara-Tigre religion, Orthodox Christianity and to wear the Amhara-Tigre Shamma in international conferences. In some cases to be an “Ethiopian”, you will even have to change your name. In short to be an Ethiopian, you will have to wear an Amhara mask (to use Fanon’s expression). Start asserting your national identity and you are automatically a tribalist, that is if you are not blessed to be born an Amhara. According to the constitution you will need Amharic to go to school, to get a job, to read books (however few) and even to listen to the news on Radio “Ethiopia” unless you are a Somali or an Eritrean in Asmara for obvious reasons.

    To anybody who has got a nodding acquaintenance with Marxism, culture is nothing more than the super-structure of an economic basis. So cultural domination always presupposes economic subjugation. A clear example of economic subjugation would be the Amhara and to a certain extent Tigrai Neftegna system in the South and the Amhara-Tigre Coalition in the urban areas. The usual pseudo-refutation of this analysis is the reference to the large Amhara andd Tigrai masses wallowing in poverty in the countryside. For that matter during the heydays of British imperialism a large mass of British Workers had to live under inhuman conditions.

    Another popular counter argument is that there are two or three ministers of non-amhara-Tigre Nationality in the Cabinet, one or two generals in the army, one or two governors and a dozen balabats in the countryside. But out and out imperialists like the British used to rule their colonies mainly by enlisting the support of tribal chiefs, who were much more rich than the average citizen of the British Metropolis. The fact that (Houphet) Boigne and Senghor were members of the French National Assembly and the fact that they were even ministers did not reduce an iota of Senegalese and Ivory Coast [Ivoirians] loss of political independence.

    Of course the economic and cultural subjugation by the Amharas and their junior partners the Tigres is a historical accident. Amharas are not dominant because of inherent imperialist tendencies. The Oromos could have done it, the Wellamos [Wolaytas] could have done it and history proves they tried to do so. But that is not an excuse for the perpetuation of this situation. The immediate question is we must declare a stop to it. And we must build a genuine national- state.

    And what is this genuine national-state? It is a state in which all nationalities participate equally in state affairs, it is a state where every nationality is given equal opportunity to preserve and develop its language, its music and its history. It is a state where Amharas, Tigres, Oromos, Aderes [Harari], Somalis, Wollamos [Wolaytas], Gurages, etc. are treated equally. It is a state where no nation dominates another nation be it economically or culturally.

    And how do we achieve this genuine democratic and egalitarian state?

    Can we do it through military? No!! A military coup is nothing more but a change of personalities. It may be a bit more liberal than the existing regime but it can never resolve the contradiction between either classes or nationalities. The Neway brothers and Tadesse Birus could not have done it. Talking about Mengistu and Tadesse, one cannot fail to remember the reaction that the Mengistus coup though a family one and at that by a sector of Shoa Amharas (with few exceptions, of course among the Workeneh) was very popular just because it was staged by “Ethiopians”-Amharas. With Tadesse, it was automatically a tribalist uprising. Why? Tadesse an Oromo cannot stage a nationalist coup but Oromo Supremacist.

    I am not equivocal in condemning coups, but the Tadesse coup had at least one significant quality and a very important one too. It gave our Oromo Brothers and Sisters self-respect. And self-respect is an important pre-requisite for any mass-based revolution. Even the so-called revolutionaries who scoffed at the coup just like the mass of the student body, could not comprehend this quality. You can clearly see in this instance the power of the Amhara-Tigre supremacist [supremacist] feelings. They clearly proved that they were nothing more than the products of government propaganda on this question.

    Can the Eritrean Liberation Front and the Bale armed struggle achieve our goal? Not with their present aims and set-up.

    Both these movements are exclusive in character, led by the local Bourgeoisie in the first instance and the local feudal lords in the second. They do not have international outlook, which is essential for our goal. They are perfectly right in declaring that there is national oppression. We do not quarrel with them on this score. But their intention is to stop there. They do not try to expand their struggles to the other nationalities. They do not attempt to make a broad-based assault on the foundations of the existing regime. They deliberately try to forget the connection of their local ruling classes with the national oppression. In short these movements are not led by peasants and workers. Therefore, they are not Socialists; it would only be a change of masters for the masses. But for the Socialists the welfare of the masses comes first.

    The same can be said for the Gojjam uprising. But I would like to take this opportunity once again to show how much Amhara supremacism [supremacism] is taken for granted in this Campus.

    To applaud the ELF is a sin. If anything favorable is written out, it is automatically refuted by both USUAA and NUEUS. But the Gojjam affair was different. Support for it was practically a show of identity to the so-called revolutionaries.

    Mind you, I am just saying that these movements are not lasting solutions for our goal-the set-up of a genuine Nationalist Socialist State. I am all for them, the ELF, the Bale movements, the Gojjam uprising, to the extent that they have challenged and weakened the existing regime, and have created areas of discontent to be harnessed later on by a genuine Socialist revolution.

    One thing again is certain. I do not oppose these movements just because they are secessionists. There is nothing wrong with secessionism as such. For that matter secession is much better than nationally oppressive government. I quote Lenin, “…People resort to secession only when national oppression and national antagonisms make joint life absolutely intolerable and hinder any and all economic intercourse. In that case the interests of the freedom of the class struggle will be best served by Secession. I would also like to quote the resolution on the question of nationalities from the London International Socialist Congress of 1896 attended, supported and adopted by the Bolsheviks who brought about the October revolution, “This Congress declares that it stands for the full right of all nations to self-determination and expresses its sympathy for the workers and peasants of every country now suffering under the yoke of military, national or other absolutism.”

    As long as secession is led by the peasants and workers and believes in its internationalist obligation, it is not only to be supported but also militarily assisted. It is pure backwardness and selfishness to ask a people to be partners in being exploited till you can catch up. We should never dwell on the subject of secession, but whether it is progressive or reactionary. A Socialist Eritrea and Bale would give a great impetus to the revolution in the country and could form an egalitarian and democratic basis for re-unification.

    To come back to our central question: How can we form a genuine egalitarian national-state? It is clear that we can achieve this goal only through violence, through revolutionary armed struggle. But we must always guard ourselves against the pseudo-nationalist propaganda of the regime. The revolution can start anywhere. It can even be secessionist to begin with, as long as led by the progressive forces-the peasants and the workers, and has the final aim the liberation of the Ethiopian Mass with due consideration to the economic and cultural independence of all the nationalities. It is the duty of every revolutionary to question whether a movement is Socialist or reactionary not whether a movement is secessionist or not. In the long run Socialism is internationalism and a Socialist movement will never remain secessionist for good.

    To quote Lenin again, “From their daily experience the masses know perfectly well the value of geographical and economic ties and the advantages of a big market and a big state.” From this point of view of the struggle as well, a regime like ours harassed from corners is bound to collapse in a relatively short period of time. But when the degree of consciousness of the various nationalities is at different levels, it is not only the right but the duty of the most conscious nationality to first liberate itself and then assist others in the struggle for total liberation. Is that not true of Korea? We do support this movement, don’t we? Then, what is this talk of tribalism, secessionism, etc…..?

    ——————————————————————–

    Wallelign Mekonnen Kassa was born on March 22, 1945 in Debresina Woreda, Wollo, Ethiopia.

    In 1965, he joined the Haile-Selassie I University and studied political science. He was one of the devoted university students who struggled to emancipate the Ethiopian workers and peasants from tyranny. Wallelign and his comrades were imprisoned by the Ethiopian government and released after five months. Wallelign was suspended from university by the administration.

    The articles he wrote include, “The Question of Nationalities in Ethiopia”, which states the national repression and the solution for this problem, “Le Awaju Awaj”, an article in response to the emperor’s address in the radio regarding the university students, “Ye Azinaraw Eseregan”(Prisoner’s Azinara ) and “Message to Professor Afework Gebereyesus”.

    Walelign acquired the love for his country from an early age, and he dedicated his life to Ethiopia until the moment he was assassinated, December 9, 1972.

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  • Mysterious of our Facebook Page Disappearance

    Hi  all.

    It is going to  be more than 1 week since our facebook page disappeared  and we know that it is hard time for all of us.We have also received too many messages in our mail box and thanks for your concern .

    Facebook terminated our Fan page with 4524 Likes without warning and notification.Facebook is unreachable company with NO Telephone number, NO  e-mail - Nothing..How such kind of big company do mistakes on their beloved customers without explaining you enough evidence? '' This is like execution without trial'' 

    Why are so many of us investing and spending our great deal of time , energy and resources in a company that is so unresponsive and Unresponsible ?????? I do not realy have the answer now . I think we all need to figure out which tools are effective and reliable.This could happen to all of you and you should take precaution and think about it.
    We are too many with such kind of problem and planning to do press release and going to public in large scale . we all love facebook since ever but such kind of situation disturbs our feeling .It is very hard to ignore facebook because we have been using this tool in a good way for the past few years and we would like to thank Mark Zuckerberg and his team for giving us such kind of great tool . Even though,they should improve their customer service as much as possible.
    We all Hope Facebook will investigate their secret policy and improve their customer service and get restored our page as soon as possible.

    Here is our situation which is in public  : http://www.canadianfreestuff.com/update-on-facebook-page-disappearance/  

    If you are willing to help us , Please spread this news to the world .

    Thank you,

    E. Team

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  • Ethiopia man wins Pittsburgh Marathon

    About 30,000 runners took over Pittsburgh streets for the Dick’s Sporting Goods Pittsburgh Marathon Sunday morning.

    Participants in the marathon, UPMC Health Plan Pittsburgh Half Marathon and FedEx Ground Pittsburgh Marathon Relay left the starting line at Liberty and 7th avenues about 7 a.m.
    The marathon and relay course took runners through 13 neighborhoods, across each of the three rivers and onto the North Shore before crossing the finish line at the Boulevard of the Allies and Stanwix Street.

    The winner of this year’s marathon, Gebo Gameda, 26, of Ethiopia, completed the 26.2-mile race at about 9:16 a.m. with a time of 2:16:30.

    Female marathon winner, Clara Santucci, 27, finished with a time of 2:32:25.

    The half marathon course took runners across the three rivers, through the South Side and across the Birmingham Bridge, leading up to the finish line downtown. Competitors began crossing the finish line at about 8 a.m.
    Habtamu Assefa, 29, was the half marathon’s male winner.
    Sophy Jepchirchir, 20, was the female winner of the half marathon.

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  • The First Laptop with Generic Amharic Keyboard

    Lately we Ethiopians are feeling like we have gone backwards in many aspects. We face the worst drought in about 30 yrs. We have got issues with our grand dam project, there is no enough transportation, water, and energy source. The list goes on.

    But here is our Christmas gift, a light in the darkness by a fellow Ethiopian, Genet Ayele. She has given us a laptop with the first Amharic Keyboard. This is a great news for Ethiopia, a country that has more that 80 dialects, one of which is Amharic. Amharic uses its own phonetics and until now we have been using Software with English keyboard in order to write Amharic text.

    That is about to change with Ethiopass. Ethiopass is a laptop made in collaboration with FUJITSU Notebook. It comes with Intel® CoreTM i5-5200U processor and AMD RadeonTM R7 M260 graphics card with 2GB dedicated memory, in addition to the Amharic keyboard. From what we have gathered, the Price is 999 euros and offering free shipment until the end of January to all EU countries and Switzerland.

    We like it and Marry Christmas to you too 

     

    Visit  Her Website: http://ethiopass.visascol.com/

     

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